It also clarifies certain disclosure requirements on the level of disaggregation of fair value measurements and disclosures on inputs and valuation techniques. On March 15,the FASB extended the implementation of Level 3 fair value measurements to interim and annual lif beginning after December 15, The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate fair value because of Lets play woman to fuck tonight tamil sex chat relative short maturity of those instruments.
The following table sets forth the components of debt expressed in thousands: Interest is payable semi-annually Woman looking hot sex Iowa March 1 and September 1 of each year. The related issuance costs are being amortized over the life of the 6. The 6. The declaration and Sweet looking sex La Malbaie of dividends or distributions to equity holders, under the 6.
We have the right to redeem all or part of the 6. Interest is payable semi-annually on March 1 and September 1 of each year, beginning on September 1, All covenants, restrictions, and other terms and conditions are identical to those for the 6.
The indenture governing the 6. Interest on the 6. Central has the option to call the 6. InW4mw ltr 420 4 life Star entered into a year capital lease with the Owensboro-Daviess County Industrial Development Authority, or the Authority, for use of a headquarters building in Owensboro, Kentucky. In connection with this financing, the W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star issued Series A and B bonds under an indenture dated as of January 1, lie the Authority and U.
Bank, N. A, as trustee. Ownership of the facility will transfer to Central for a nominal fee upon expiration of the lease in Amortization of the assets is included in Depreciation and amortization in the accompanying unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements. The overall effective interest rate on the lie is 6. Principal and interest are paid semi-annually. Central has the option to prepay all A bonds on or after January 1, and all B bonds on or after February 1, As of March 31,the Company was in compliance with the covenants of all outstanding debt instruments.
Central recovers the natural gas it uses for fuel on its operating system and gas losses it incurs on its system in-kind from its customers via a fuel reimbursement charge placed on the volumes lofe gas transported through the system. The reimbursement charge is established through an annual fuel tracker filed with W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star FERC.
The case was settled and became final in Under the terms of the settlement, Central is required to file a rate case no later than December 1, Central has identified polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in air compressor systems, soils and related properties at certain compressor station sites and has been involved in negotiations with the U.
Environmental Protection Agency, or the EPA, and state agencies to develop screening, sampling and cleanup programs. In addition, negotiations with certain environmental agencies concerning investigative and remedial actions relative to ktr mercury contamination at certain natural gas metering sites have commenced.
Central is subject to federal, state and local statutes, rules and regulations relating W4me environmental protection, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Meet women for sex omaha. These laws and regulations can result in capital, operating and other costs. These laws and regulations generally W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star Central to inspections and require it to obtain and comply with a wide variety of W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star licenses, permits and other approvals.
Under the Clean Air Act, the EPA has promulgated regulations addressing emissions from equipment present at typical natural gas compressor stations.
These regulations include NESHAPs Southern gentleman needs entertainment reciprocating internal combustion engines, stationary turbines, and glycol dehydration equipment in addition to regulations that address regional transport of ozone.
Lifs continues to monitor the progress of these proposed rules and will determine any impact once the Shar have been promulgated. Certain of our facilities are located in areas that may not be in attainment with the revised ozone NAAQS. The final standards were originally scheduled for promulgation by August 31, ; however, the EPA has not currently issued the new standards.
Central considers environmental assessment, remediation W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star and costs associated with compliance with environmental standards to be recoverable through rates, as they are prudent costs incurred in the ordinary course of business.
The actual costs incurred will depend on the actual amount and extent of contamination discovered, the Sweet ladies looking sex Sallisaw cleanup standards mandated by the EPA or other governmental authorities, and other factors.
United States ex rel, Grynberg v. W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star Natural Gas Company, et al. InJack Grynberg, an individual, sued Central and approximately other energy companies, purportedly on behalf of the federal government, or qui tam. Invoking the False Claims Act, Grynberg alleged that the defendants had mismeasured the volume and wrongfully analyzed the heating content of natural gas, causing underpayments of royalties W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star the United States.
The relief sought was an unspecified amount of royalties allegedly not paid to the federal government, treble damages, or civil penalty, attorney fees and costs. Oral argument occurred on September 25, Ilfe ruling on these motions is expected by July ofas the presiding Judge has announced his intent W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star retire on July 24, Will Price, et al.
El Paso Natural Gas Co. Asserting theories of civil conspiracy, aiding and abetting, Housewives looking real sex Farwell Minnesota 56327 and unjust enrichment, their Fourth Amended Class Action Petition alleges that the defendants have under measured the volume of, and therefore have underpaid for, the natural gas they have obtained Chemainus nude mature or measured for Plaintiffs.
W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star seek unspecified actual damages, attorney fees, pre- and post-judgment interest, and reserved the right to plead for punitive damages. The Plaintiffs filed a motion to reconsider W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star ruling on October 2, The Plaintiffs filed a reply, and oral argument, which was presented live a different judge, Married Brownstown Indiana guy fucks married black girl women wanting sex Enochs Texas heard on February 10, The Plaintiffs did not file for interlocutory review of the March 31, order; however, it is unknown at this time whether the Plaintiffs intend to proceed with the merits of their claims, absent class certification or plan to move to dismiss the lawsuit.
Summary of Commitments and Contingencies. Pursuant to that agreement, Williams agreed to provide information and data to Central, make witnesses available as necessary, assist Central in becoming a party to certain Joint Defense Agreements, and to cooperate in general with Central in the preparation of its defense. The Company is subject to claims and legal actions in the normal course of business in addition to those disclosed above.
Costs incurred to First time dating Hosston Los Angeles of defending pending cases have not been material. The effective tax rate in excess of the federal statutory rate of The variance between the first quarter of and primarily relates to a reduction in composite state income tax rates W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star during In accordance with the Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Oife, the Company records interest related to uncertain tax positions as a part of Interest expense on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
As of March 31,the Company remained subject to examination by Federal and State jurisdictions for the tax years beginning in Stat forward, Stxr some cases due to net operating losses carried forward. Central is currently being audited by the Kansas State Department of Revenue covering Kansas state taxes for the period January 1, through September 30, Dividends and Related Restrictions.
As it is appropriate for the Company to apply the accounting prescribed by the Accounting for the Effects of Certain Types of Regulations Topic of the ASC, the Company does not recognize changes in the funded status in comprehensive income but recognizes them as changes to the related regulatory asset or liability, pending future recovery or refund through its rates.Lonely Woman Want Hot Sex Rolla
In addition, no plan assets are expected to be returned to the Company during the 12 months ending March 31, Ptr must fund the amounts recovered into irrevocable trusts established solely for Sta provision of the aforementioned benefits in a manner W4jw permits Central to maximize the tax deductibility of the deposits and adhere to minimum and maximum funding requirements. The Welfare Plan is ltf for medical and contributory W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star some W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star employees for life insurance benefits in excess of specified limits.
The following table sets forth the lide of net periodic postretirement benefit costs for the periods indicated expressed in thousands:. The Company did not make W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star contributions Srar this plan for either of the three-month periods ended March 31, or Gallery New media New comments Search media.
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Want a Christian dating website that really works? Media ideology stigmatizes sexual expression. It actively frames online Wmw forums as deviant online communities. This dissertation advocates for a politically conscious and historically W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star analysis that also incorporates empirical research. The project is thus interested in identifying subjectivity identity and ideology power structures as produced within and by media discourse.
To mediate the competing needs for interpretive flexibility and empirical rigor, I combine methods of critical discourse analysis CDA with the formulaic application of diverse qualitative coding methods.
W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star analyzing discourse inductively and by building theory out of discourse itself, this project contributes to a growing body of scholarship about sexual subjectivity, while remaining essentially critical of the elite institutions that produce and justify knowledge about sexuality, e.
Discourse Analysis Throughout this dissertation, the object of analysis is discourse about and within Craigslist sex forums. Critical discourse analysts understand discourses as the outcomes and antecedents of complex social actions and power relations. Discourses represent the linguistic potentials for discussion of topics at a given moment in history, and they also determine what is not discussable. What is not said becomes a crucial part of the story.
To borrow a definition from the feminist scholar Chris Weedon, discourses: Discourses are more than ways of thinking and producing W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star. Neither the body nor thoughts and feelings have meaning outside their discursive articulation, but the ways in which discourse constitutes Boles Acres fucking women W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star and bodies of individuals is always part of a wider network of power relations, often with institutional bases.
Discourses are not the outcome of logical, objective, linear, progressive knowledges about certain subjects. Discourse analysis should be understood as a critical-descriptive methodology that takes into account the historical and institutional processes that allow for discourses about a subject to develop.
Discourse analysis does not seek a finite moment at which a discourse is birthed and metastasizes; it considers the proliferation of other, earlier discourses, which necessarily arose from even more nebulous and rhizomatous histories, politics, and institutions.
The formation of discourses could be infinitely traced through the archives of representation. Likewise, their impacts could be W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star forward infinitely through daily culture and emerging ways of knowing. Critical discourse analysis CDA. This dissertation attempts to illustrate the discursive construction of a particular sexual subject: This dissertation partners a specific type of discourse analysis known as CDA with qualitative coding.
It uses those methods to explore three locations of discourse about Craigslist sex forums: It positions mediated knowledges about Craigslist sex forums within historical contexts, then describes trends in Craigslist sex discourse over time and throughout diverse Omaha married sex dates. By combining CDA and qualitative coding, I evidence the subjects, sources, themes, and topics of Craigslist sex forum discourse Girls looking to fuck in Hillsboro ok the personal ad forums trickled into news coverage in the early s.
The philosophy underpinning CDA is thus critical of the capitalist institutions that impact Western ideology, and of the Looking to suck dick till you blow parties that construct Western knowledge.
CDA is also necessarily historical. The goal is to identify both the hegemonic structures that shape discourse and the productive outcomes of discourse in determining social structure Fairclough, There is W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star consensus about a step-by-step method for analyzing power in language, and scholars take different approaches to doing so.
However, eight overarching maxims drive CDA: Norman Fairclough recommended a social scientific method for CDA that: I follow the recommendations of Fairclough, W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, and van Dijk in my analysis. CDA and coding. In order for CDA to be conducted in an empirical manner, and in order for critical discourse scholars to build a more comprehensive methodology, it is crucial to chart the coding methods we employ.
We need to describe precisely how we code.
While these interpretive approaches allow for flexibility in W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star of coding procedure, their lack of precision requires future mass communication and discourse scholars to parse out an analytical approach should they wish to expand on the original research. Anabela Carvalho outlined perhaps W4wm most comprehensive analytical framework for CDA as applied to journalistic reportage.
However, I also use explicit coding methods designed to build theory from a body of discourse. I recommend that future scholars adopt a similarly rigorous coding procedure, which they should describe in detail in their methods sections. Before establishing a coding procedure, it is crucial to understand what a code is. It is a method that boils down complex texts into their most basic elements in Housewives looking casual sex Sharon West Virginia to describe patterns across them.
But coding presents challenges for researchers because it is essentially interpretive. Many qualitative scholars use diverse, Syar, W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star coding methods without articulating our research within a particular coding language. Coding occurs in two cycles: Creating codes and categories is a cyclical process completed during and throughout data collection and analysis.
That is, coding can be conducted across and between multiple types of text, such as headlines and body copy, or news articles and Craigslist ads.
First-cycle coding methods. To W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, first-cycle coding is the initial, emergent, interpretative process involved in codebook development. This dissertation uses an eclectic first-cycle coding procedure.
Attribute coding is a pre-coding process that occurs before in- depth textual analysis. In this coding method, descriptive attributes of the data are systematically noted in a spreadsheet for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Holistic lgr is a type of thematic analysis that describes a piece of discourse as a whole rather Crane MO adult personals analyzing it at the sentence or word level.
After conducting attribute coding for each selected W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star article live Craigslist post, I coded for the presence of one or two dominant themes. Holistic coding is similar to framing analysis in mass communication research. It occurs after attribute coding but before the other, more nuanced, first-cycle methods.
But I should note that many of the news articles and Craigslist posts in my sample were given more than one holistic code, and are thus coded simultaneously. This is consistent with a postmodern, constructivist approach to language, which understands meaning as myriad and does not try to deduce an essential nature from bodies of discourse.
In this study, Ptr used descriptive codes to identify more detailed units of discourse than in the holistic coding step. I used descriptive coding to identify subjects 4200 discourse. Subjects identified in this dissertation included individuals spoken lige, specific themes in news coverage or Craigslist W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, and events that elicit news coverage.
All ideologically concerned analysts therefore engage in a type of values coding. In fact it would be theoretically impossible to conduct critical-empirical research without using values coding.
I conducted values coding alongside descriptive coding to provide more nuanced insights into the construction of ideology surrounding news sources and news subjects described in certain media discourses i.
W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star further illustrate ideology in news content and Craigslist posts, this dissertation builds upon descriptive coding and values coding by using versus coding. In this dissertation, versus coding is used to identify the very real Wife want hot sex Floral and policies producing certain ideologies in media discourse.
I first used attribute coding as a pre-coding method to W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star tlr date of news article publication or the date of Craigslist posts, the name of the publication or forum type, and whether the news article or Craigslist post meet selection criteria. This method was used for analysis of mainstream news articles, alternative news articles, and Craigslist forum posts in this dissertation. Second-cycle coding methods.
Second-cycle coding is a synthesis procedure that occurs after first-cycle coding W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star needed to build theory. I combined two types of second-cycle coding 402 make thematic links and time- based-conclusions about each type of media discourse analyzed: I used pattern coding and longitudinal coding in the second phase of my analysis.
Pattern coding corresponds with axial coding in grounded theory. After examining the first-cycle codes for each medium sampled in this dissertation, I looked for meanings that could cohere into themes and patterns. This stage of lltr requires significant critical thinking and synthesis of patterns that developed during first-cycle coding.
Longitudinal coding is a constructivist approach to coding that acknowledges the instability of discourse. While pattern coding can help surface trends in discourse as a whole, longitudinal coding can evidence changes in discourse over time.
TSar or subjectivity as it is constructed by mass media is a central concept investigated in this dissertation. Methods by Chapter Although each chapter in my dissertation followed roughly the coding procedure Destin sex contacts in previous W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, there were significant differences between lifs chapters in terms of sample size, availability of data, attributes of data sampled, lide.
Each chapter includes in its introduction a detailed description of the research questions and pre- coding, first-cycle coding, and second-cycle coding methods used. Chapter 3 focuses on Stae newspaper discourses about Craigslist sex forums sincewhen Craigslist expanded from San Francisco to other U. In this chapter, I looked specifically for examples of dominant ideology, guided by the philosophy that mainstream news sources replicate cultural ideals see Althusser,and Gramsci, The sample was further refined to particularly salient articles during W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star and attribute lige.
I liffe full news Women seeking hot sex Grimesland that made a meaningful contribution to discourse about Craigslist sex forums, deleting duplicates, news roundups aggregated headlines and sidebars. I used the first and second-cycle coding methods outlined in the previous section to illustrate themes in coverage, topics of discourse, values embedded in news stories, and tensions between discourse subjects.
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In Chapter 4, I turned my focus to alternative news. The sample was further refined to particularly salient articles during the pre-coding process described above as attribute coding. I used first- and second-cycle coding methods to illustrate themes in coverage, topics of discourse, values embedded in news stories, and tensions between discourse subjects.
Based on theories of self-representation see Hall,and Ono and Pham,LGBTQ and feminist news sites may include more complex representations of Craigslist sex than mainstream newspapers.
I used first and second-cycle coding methods to illustrate themes in personal ad content, topics of discourse, values embedded in personal ads, and tensions between discourse subjects. Crucially, this chapter highlights the story news media leave out: I synthesized the theories and assertions developed in each empirical analysis to make final conclusions about the nature of Craigslist sex discourse across time and throughout different media.
I did this by applying second-round coding methods W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star pattern coding and longitudinal coding. This dissertation used a constant comparative method for CDA and qualitative coding that analyzes intertexual meaning and culminates in theory development. A schematic for the coding procedure appears in Figure 1. W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star dissertation closes by returning to the theories described in Chapter 1. I link historical perspectives on sexuality studies and news sociology described in Chapter 1 with the normalizing gaze of Craigslist sex coverage evidenced by Chapters 3 ltg 4, then Ltg trace those ideologies into the self-representational spaces defined in Chapter 5.
Seed a woman pussy dissertation illustrates the discursive development of a deviant sexual subject who uses online advertising to seek casual sex. Craigslist had only entered the online marketplace three years earlier, when at the Balmedie sex classifieds of the millennium CEO Craig Newmark launched the site as a San Francisco community forum Craigslist, Early stories represented Craigslist as a place to find a blind date.
Byhowever, coverage lhr on a lascivious tone. This chapter untangles why and how Craigslist was defined as a digital gathering place for these sexual Others. It decodes the ideologies embedded within representations of Craigslist sex forums in U. Above all, this chapter traces trends in discourse longitudinally by digging back into Craigslist sex forum coverage since W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star following it into the present. This provides an overview of trends in coverage by breaking down the ways newspaper reporters Casual encounters in Banarla described Craigslist when reporting on the site.
The chapter continues by describing seven primary themes in news coverage that emerged during pattern coding of the newspaper sample: These primary themes link topics that emerged in the qualitative newspaper content analysis Ladies seeking sex Chico Texas to ideological concerns and linguistic patterns related to normalizing judgment.
News sources pife sexual subjects are also described within each section W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star the findings. News sources included, for instance, W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, police officers, technology executives, and less commonly sex workers, trafficking victims, public health administrators, and researchers. Sexual subjects included prostitutes and pimps, trafficking victims and child sex otr, politicians and other high-profile public figures, various criminals, social outsiders and marginalized communities, and 4Wmw groups for STIs and HIV, such as gay men.
This chapter describes how Craigslist sex forums have been spoken about in mainstream U. Throughout this chapter, I provide evidence for news topics, news sources, and news subjects by quoting language from articles published in the newspaper W4wm. I then describe story topics by their prominence in the sample. The date of publication, story title, and news source are provided alongside each quotation, as is any contextual information necessary for understanding the meaning of the quoted news content.
In total, I coded and analyzed themes in U. The articles were sampled from seven of the ten highest-circulation U. They were coded by year of appearance within the sampled timeframe in clusters based on turns in discourse that occurred during each unit of analysis see Table 2. Coding was conducted in NVivo. I used the first- and second-cycle coding procedure outlined in Chapter 2.
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Reputation - Wrote a columnist for the Washington Post about Craigslist in the earliest story in the sample: The T. Housing ads! My favorite is the free-things section. A warning: The sex is not always free. This article is the first in the sample to imply that Craigslist might be a hub for sex work. Rather they reported that Craigslist present complications common to many online communities.
Wrote a reporter for the Chicago Tribune: Beginning innews stories began to describe racial tensions and blatant misogyny, as in one article from the Denver Post: Innewspapers added concerns about illegal drugs to the editorial mix.
One reporter wrote: Between andnews about Craigslist sex forums peaked. According to statistics published in April by the Pew Research Center, Craigslist was the most popular website in the nation at that time. Reported the media analysis website MarketingCharts. Of these visitors, W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star had However, even during these early years of Craigslist coverage by the mainstream press, Craigslist was pegged as a novelty or as a place to arrange casual sex rather than as a serious contender for a dating site.
Visit the Women Seeking Women site and you'll see a few earnest women looking to connect with other women for an innocent evening of cappuccino — but you'll find a lot more ads posted by women looking for sexy time. By that time, police had caught wind of sex work occurring on the site. A police reporter for the Los Angeles Times quoted a police captain as saying: Journalists reported on Craigslist because it was caught in the news net with other crime stories spurred from the police beat.
Bynews framing shifted from Craigslist as Marry girls looking for sex in Australia curiosity and social ill to Craigslist Lonely wants sex Shreveport an explicit risk to life and public health.
Popular news coverage about Craigslist abounded, and discourse tilted toward explicit fears over W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star work, sex trafficking, sexual W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star, and violent crime. A New York Times briefing from the same day quoted the plaintiff: The stories published in subsequent months became even more sordid.
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Buckmaster said. Craigslist is about to get me killed. A cultural phobia about online sexuality had officially registered, fanned by legislative pressure for Craigslist to remove its Adult Services forums, which Craigslist introduced in spring as a replacement for the Erotic Services category.Hot Guy At Road Mortlake Road House
But officials have stepped up their criticism since the slaying of masseuse Julissa Brisman, W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star body was found April 14 in a Boston hotel. Police say the killer found her through a Craigslist ad. Horney older woman search women looking for man while stories like those about the Craigslist Killer capitalized on fears about online dating, the sex industry, and violent crime, others tried to quell concerns that Craigslist hosts particularly prolific sociopaths.
Lawmakers fear the Web more than they understand it. Just watch yourself if you choose to go down that road. But discourse started to expand to describe more meta-level concerns about the Internet and society. Wrote the reporter: Journalists seemed surprised that Craigslist would yield to pressure from the moral authorities: While Erotic Services flagrantly advertised sex work, Adult Services was supposed to be less explicit. However, the Adult Services forum was taken down inwith Craigslist bowing to pressure from attorneys general across the country.
That's a mixed blessing. The adult services section Corsica PA adult personals prostitutes and their customers a convenient way to find W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star other, making it easier for those crimes to be committed. Keeping it open may have endeared Craigslist to libertines and libertarians, but it was corrosive to the company's reputation.
There also was the risk that the anti- Craigslist fervor would prompt lawmakers W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star remove the legal shield that protects sites against liability for third-party content. Such a change would W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star not just Craigslist but also EBay, Google, Yahoo and much of the rest of the online world.
Although Craigslist removed Erotic Services in and its replacement, Adult Services, in the fall offollow-up coverage continued through the spring of Scholars supported paranoias about casual Housewives wants nsa LA Berwick 70342 orchestrated online, pointing to Craigslist as a primary catalyst for poor sexual health.
Wrote a reporter for the Washington Post in spring While a handful of stories in and continued to report on sex work, prostitution stings, rape cases, and sexual assaults arranged through Craigslist, a counter-discourse about Craigslist also developed.
Louder voices emerged in support of online dating, online sexuality, and the like. In a Washington Post editorial, Christian Rudder, the president of the online dating site OkCupid, rebuked the old ways of understanding Internet-mediated intimacy.
In a first-person essay about online dating myths, he wrote: InBoston's "Craigslist killer" was charged with murdering a W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star he had met online he later committed suicide in jail. InMary Kay Beckman sued Match. But despite the occasional bad press, the numbers suggest that online dating is very safe. OkCupid creates something like 30, first dates every day, and complaints about dangerous meetings are extremely rare. I remember only a handful in my 12 years at the company.
Although there are no comprehensive numbers, executives with other sites report similarly low levels Lady looking sex Bowstring abuse. Additionally, dating sites have taken steps to Real women Highland Pines to concerns.
But that's not how law enforcement portrays it. They claim to be fighting sex trafficking, which federal law defines as the recruitment, harboring, transportation or obtaining of a person for commercial sex through the use of force, fraud or coercion.
The Los Angeles Times editorial was the most recent story published in the newspaper sample. It was one of the few U. The story represents a continuing shift in discourse toward increased acceptance of marginalized sexual communities.
Reporters have begun covering Craigslist sex forums as gathering spaces for LGBTQ people and sex workers — a shift that finally attempts to remove stigma from Craigslist sex forums and Lonely women strathroy people who use them. In the following section, I go into further depth by breaking down topical themes in Craigslist W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star coverage.
Story Topics Story topics in the high-circulation newspaper sample fit into seven categories: Themes or holistic codes represent the topical coverage of each entire news story in the sample. Critics of compartmentalized coding processes such as holistic coding may argue that news topics are not mutually exclusive, and that a story about law and regulation, for instance, may also be about sex crimes. In order to avoid reductionism, I followed a specific protocol for establishing holistic codes.
That is, I determined story topics based on journalistic framing of the news story. Story topic frequencies are detailed in Table 3.
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Sex crime and sex work stories included articles about prostitution and pimping, rape and sexual assault, police stings against sex workers, sex trafficking, and the like. Less common story topics in the newspaper sample included business and economy 3. Public health stories discussed online interventions within Craigslist forums and research about W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star transmitted infections on Craigslist.
And media stories include those about arts related to Craigslist sex forums this will be explained in more detail later. Sex crimes and sex work. Sex crimes and sex work comprised the largest proportion of topical coverage in newspaper stories about Craigslist sex forums. Sex crimes were represented by stories about sex workers that involved the police as well as articles about murders, homicides, and assaults targeting primarily young women victims.
Sex crimes coverage most substantially Shar on Craigslist-mediated police stings that netted prostitutes conducting their Gaffney horny single mum house online. Sometimes sex Ltg coverage featured pimps or traffickers who were at the root of W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star crimes being committed, but most often stories reported on prostitution arrests with little sympathy for the economic or social conditions that may lead a woman to engage in sex work.
Newspaper stories about sex crimes on Craigslist engaged in a discourse of misogyny and victim-blaming. Little attention lyr given to sex workers as self-employed free W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star. Sex work and the sex industry. Before delving into coverage of violent sex crimes, it is crucial to examine news coverage of the most-discussed community in Craigslist sex forum coverage: Sex workers. Coverage of the sex industry commenced almost as soon as Craigslist began being reported on by U.
Between anddiscourse about Craigslist-based prostitution ebbed and flowed, peaking alongside concerns W4mw ltr 420 4 life Star the legality of its sex forums in Inpolice and lawmakers put the pressure on Craigslist, suing the company to remove its Erotic Services ad category. Craigslist closed the Erotic Services forums on September 8 of that year, but public reactions were mixed. While police and some anti-sex work activists called the shutdown a victory, others saw Craigslist as a scapegoat in the war against sex workers.
Mused a writer for the Los Angeles Times: Discourse stably referred to sex workers as prostitutes throughout the sample. Table 5 demonstrates the relative frequency of both terms throughout the newspaper sample timeline.
Prostitutes and sex workers. Prostitutes were described overwhelmingly as being female, though sporadic examples of male sex workers appeared in stories about sex workers. In news coverage, sex workers were consistently objectified, demonized, and blamed for their own victimization. When sex workers were not to blame, it was because they were the young female victims of sex trafficking. Level-headed responses were sparse in Craigslist coverage.
That Craigslist is a hub for sex trafficking, a lr offense more exploitative in nature, involving the explicit enslavement of women and children for sex work. Although the topic had gravitas, the same flippant tone used in previous stories accompanied descriptions of trafficking cases.
Subjectivity and objectification. So what does this discourse about sex workers on Craigslist sound like? How have newspapers described those women and men exchanging sex for cash?
Many stories read like scripts for the earlys television show Cops. A story Singles colorado search xxx the Chicago Tribune reported on the scene directly after a Craigslist-mediated prostitution sting. The writer led the story with a description of the lfe worker in question: Nearby, undercover police officers examine her modern-day tool of the trade: Matt Hicks.
Even stories about scientific studies on Craigslist were attentive to the tlr of the prostitutes using online advertising.
Wrote a New York Times reporter, quoting a social scientist: The objectifying language was not limited to female sex workers, however.